Homio is an interactive water bottle for anxiety and panic attack recovery that utilizes sensory strategies to ground and calm the mind.

This was a graduate student project for my Ideation Studio course where my team was tasked to define a design challenge on the topic of mental health.

We examined the effects of panic attacks in young adults and presented a design response that aims to provide support during the most intense moments of an attack.

My Contribution

In this collaborative project, the entire team was involved in the research, design, and decision-making process. Here are some specific skills and contributions I brought to the team —

Illustration

Designed graphic assets
for the website in Adobe Illustrator

3D Modeling

Created a 3D model of the
water bottle with Blender

Copywriting + Storytelling

Generated the website copy and
the narrative for the presentation

Designing for
Mental Health

Going into my first project in grad school, the topic of mental health was intimidating to say the least. Safety is number one when it comes to engaging with vulnerable communities or testing with them.

We had to acknowledge that our design response will not be a replacement for therapy and long-term treatment and still needs to be validated with more testing.

Considering the limited time and resources for this project, my team tried to keep the scope manageable. We focused on individuals with a moderate mental health challenge from an age demographic that we had easier access to.

Ultimately, our team strived to create a design response that would make individuals who experience panic attacks feel empowered and in control of their everyday lives.

What are Panic Attacks?

A panic attack is an episode of intense fear that trigger severe psychological and physical reactions when there is no real danger or apparent cause.

Narrowing Focus

WHO

Young people (ages 15-25)

Our research indicated that this is the age range when panic attacks typically onset and peak. This can be the result of experiencing stressful environments and major life transitions.

WHERE

Public settings: Classrooms

While panic attacks can be triggered anywhere, we narrowed our scope to classroom settings to examine a controlled public setting where our target group is managing stress and social relationships.

WHEN

At the height of an attack

Panic attacks develop abruptly and can last from 20-30 minutes, leaving a person mentally and physically drained. We wanted to focus on real-time support as they ride out the attack to lessen the impact.

Opportunity

We decided to move forward with this topic area because of the potentially harmful effects on young people’s wellbeing and social relationships.

My team investigated how we could prepare and support young people through this experience.

Design
Challenge

How might we enable adolescents / young adults to promptly and discreetly ease their panic attack symptoms?

Design
Response

An interactive water bottle for anxiety and panic attack recovery

The Experience

A complete walkthrough of the user experience
through the story of Emma.

identify

Meet Emma, she has been experiencing stress induced panic attacks at school. She doesn’t know how to recover from a panic attack without drawing attention to herself or leaving in the middle of class.

She recognizes this is affecting her daily life and wants to find some way to prepare and ease her panic attacks when it next occurs.

Discover & Learn

Upon doing some research, Emma comes across the homio website. She learns about managing her panic attacks and anxiety through grounding exercises.

product features

Aromatherapy can help reduce anxiety by using scents associated with relaxation/stress relief.

Physically interacting with the world around you helps refocus your mind and take control.

Drinking water can prevent dehydration and reduce triggers that lead to panic attacks.

try & customize

Emma learns that she can order a sample box of different scents and textures to test out before customizing her water bottle with our bottle builder.

She discovers likes the scent jasmine and the thermochromic texture. She returns to the website to put in her order.

implement

Once Emma’s homio bottle arrives, she brings it everywhere she goes. She places it on her desk in class and remembers to drink water frequently.

If a panic attack happens, Emma can release the jasmine scent, to instantly feel more at ease. Her anxious feelings will gradually melt away when she interacts with the color changing thermochromic texture.

Aromatherapy diffuser

within reach at all times

tactile attachments

Design Process

Starting from our research

Research Phase

We conducted primary and secondary research to answer the following questions about panic attack experiences.

Professional Opinions

What have experts found helpful in preventing or managing the symptoms?

Research Method

Secondary research and User Interviews

Read published articles from therapists, psychologists, national health organizations

Research Goal

We wanted to explore proven strategies or treatments for easing and treating panic attacks. With our cultural probe participants, we delved into the contexts and strategies they used to manage a panic attack.

Understanding the Lived Experience

How do they perceive those symptoms?

research method

We distributed a cultural probe to 6 participants that reported a history of panic attacks.

research goal

Understand our target group's thought process and emotions associated with the symptoms of an attack.

Indicate where you feel affected by a panic attack, and how. Feel free to shade, draw, and/or write short descriptions.

Defjsdkfjslkd

Who do they feel comfortable getting support from?

What kind of support do people want?

Research Method

Cultural Probe and Online Survey,
15 Participants

Research Goal

Understand the needs of our target group and examine the involvement of their support network.

While the cultural probe was useful, the survey allowed us to reach more people and gather richer information. Participants were anonymous and had the space to write about their experience in more detail.

01 research method

We distributed a cultural probe to 6 participants that reported a history of panic attacks.

02 research method

Understand our target group's thought process and emotions associated with the symptoms of an attack.

Insights

01

Hyperawareness about how they are perceived by others

02

Perception is that they are in danger, scared, A panic attack initiates the body’s fight-or-flight response

03

Labs and workrooms then revert to exhibits where visitors are just watching and reading information displays rather than engaging.

Ideation Phase

Generating ideas from our research and narrowing down on a viable response to our design challenge.

Design Principles

From our research and defined focus, we developed three design principles that we want our response embody.

Supportive

Provide assurance and
make you feel prepared

Personal

Adaptable to your
personal preferences

Accessible

Integrated into your
everyday life

Sketch Sprint

We ideated 30 sketches each for a total of 90 sketches, keeping our design principles in mind.
Ideas ranged from physical spaces, peer support, communication tools, sensory experiences, and games.

Identifying
Themes

While referring back to our design principles and research, we used affinity mapping and saw a major theme emerge.

A lot of our ideas revolved around one of the therapy methods we learned from secondary research —

Grounding Exercises

Therapists have recommended grounding exercises as a strategy to bring people’s attention back to the present by connecting them with the physical world around them.

It encourages people to focus on something they can touch, hear, smell, taste, or see.

Two Directions

We down-selected to 2 concepts that facilitated engaging the different senses.
We evaluated them against our design principles to select the final concept.

01

Sensory Cube

A portable, interactive cube that has different sense engaging components on each side. Ex. fidget buttons, aroma diffuser, visual stimuli, or soothing sounds.

02

Safe Space

A private physical space on campus that provides relaxing + sense engaging amenities. The room is accessed by ID # which will then send a notification to the student's teacher.

Design Principles Evaluation

Supportive

Personal

Accessible

Sensory Cube

An interchangeable system will allow users to customize the tool based on their preferences.

The small form factor will allow users to travel easily with it and access when needed.

Creating a tool users can use independently to manage their panic attack symptoms.

Safe Space

Creating a dedicated space and notification tool to support mental health at school.

Providing various amenities that help students recover and return to class when they are ready.

Panic attack symptoms may affect mobility, making the space less accessible to all students.

Selected
Concept Direction

Sensory Cube

This concept aligned the most with our design principles and allows people to be proactive about managing their panic attack symptoms.

This concept also has the potential to be extended outside the context of the classroom and be useful in any public situation.

Future Considerations

Although the time constraints prevented us from exploring both concepts, I believe the safe space concept is still a valuable one.

While the sensory cube helps on an individual level, the safe space provides access to assistance for all people on campus. Institutions can help destigmatize mental health and prioritize their community’s well being by providing resources.

Prototyping Phase

As we developed our concept, we created prototypes of the form factor and components to assess if our design was feasible and truly aligned with our design principles in action.

We created a protocol and tested our prototype with 5 participants with the following questions in mind.

What can we use to engage the senses?

How can we use sensory strategies that will make users feel safe?

How can we help

Method

We created different samples that participants could touch, smell, and visually engage with.

We asked participants to tell us about how the materials made them feel in the context of anxious situations.

Finding

We received strong positive responses to the smell and touch samples. However, everyone had different associations and preferences.

I have a strong association between scents and relaxing. I already use lavender essential oil on my pillow when I sleep.

Participant 1

Recommendation

Our design should utilize aromatherapy and tactile feedback.

We should provide a wide selection of scents and textures to suit difference preferences.

Is the form factor really accessible?

Is this object easy to access in a sudden situation?
Will the user feel comfortable using it in public?

Method

We crafted a cube connected to a keychain to represent the form.

We asked participants to simulate engaging with their senses by holding the cube to their eye, nose, ear, and in their hand.

demo by teammate

01 Finding

Participants were concerned with bringing another object around on top of their normal necessities and accessing it when needed.

The size is too big to fit my jacket pocket or jeans. If it’s in my bag, I could forget about it or fumble around to find it when I need it.

Participant 3

02 Finding

Participants found it awkward and uncomfortable to hold the cube to their nose or eye, especially in a public setting.

I wouldn’t want to use it in public since people might look at me weird.

Participant 2

We learned this form factor was not as accessible as we thought.

We assumed that people's mental model of this form would be similar to the popular fidget cube.

01 Recommendation

Accessibility is not only about portability but examining how the user will incorporate the object into their life.

Our form factor should take the shape of an object that is already present in everyday life where we can then integrate our components.

02 Recommendation

Both our research and prototyping indicated that we should design for social acceptability.

Our form factor and interactions should be more discreet and subtle to avoid magnifying the self-awareness they already feel during panic attacks.

We needed to pivot
our form factor.

Making the Pivot:

What objects already exist in the everyday life of students?

We brainstormed clothing items, accessories, electronics, and school supplies but none of them
seemed to be feasible given the size, material, and shape.

AHA Moment

During our team discussion, I realized we were in right in the context that we defined — a classroom.
I took a glance around the classroom full of students and noticed we all had water bottles sitting on our desks.

Why a water bottle?

01

Large enough to house and integrate different components using the body of the bottle and the bottle cap.

02

Widely accepted in public environments and designed to be transported with water bottle pockets and handles.

03

Taste is a sense we didn't explore yet and drinking water is vital in restoring the body to homeostasis.

Design Concept

With a clear direction after a round of prototyping and testing, we designed the full experience which details the function and look/feel of the water bottle, sensory components, and the customization website.

Bottle Design

We created a medium fidelity physical prototype of the bottle out of available materials and a more realistic 3D model of the bottle. I built the 3D models using Blender.

Aromatherapy

I proposed that we could embed a scent diffuser into the cap of the bottle. I explored different diffusing mechanisms and decided on a compartment in the cap that housed an absorbent pad.

After adding essential oils to the pad, you twist the top of the cap which will open the vents and release the scent.

Tactile Textures

I proposed we could wrap the texture elements around the body of the bottle. This placement will be easy for hands to interact with because people normally grip the water bottle here.

I imagine the elements would take the shape of bands that can slide and snap into place on the bottle.

We created a mid-fidelity prototype of the water bottle out of available materials. We applied the senses of touch and smell by attaching a fidget band, thermochromic tape, and an essential oil diffuser.

Scents & Textures

We selected and created 5 scents and 5 textures to pair with our bottle. These were chosen based on additional research and our prototyping feedback. Each one comes with a description of the benefits associated with it.

Customization Experience

To further emphasize the design principle personal, we designed a commerce website to provide a customization service.

We recognized that everyone has their own unique reactions to different textures and scents. To account for these differences, we designed a service for potential users to try out the different scents and textures before choosing their final customization.